529 Plans: PA State Tax Benefits
Vice President Jaclyn Cornelius, EA, CFP®, offers some insights and options Pennsylvania taxpayers may want to know about 529 plan contributions and deductions. WATCH NOW
Equity markets bounced back from a tumultuous end to 2018 with one of the strongest quarters in recent memory. Remarkably, the upward momentum in equities was established despite further weakening of the economic backdrop, a lack of real progress in US/China trade negotiations, and the longest government shutdown in US history. So what changed? For one thing, the market likely overshot to the downside when it teetered on the edge of bear market territory back in December, but markets also received a shot of adrenaline from the Federal Reserve, which completely reversed course on its plans for monetary policy normalization.
The market rally during the first quarter has helped to illuminate just how fixated the market has become on the Federal Reserve. The roots of that fixation likely trace themselves all the way back to the financial crisis, when interest rates were pulled down to zero and the great policy experiment known as “Quantitative Easing” began. For ten years now, the market has become accustomed to the artificially high levels of liquidity and easy access to capital that these policies have fostered, and it is becoming apparent that it will take time for markets to be weaned off of that support. All of this has put Fed Chairman Jerome Powell in an unenviable position, where every public appearance he makes has the potential to invoke a meaningful response from markets.
Performance in the bond market was also strong to start the year, as a downward shift in inflation expectations combined with the reversal in rhetoric from the Fed to push yields to their lowest levels since 2017. However, bond yields flashed a bearish signal to markets during the last few weeks of the quarter as the yield difference between the 3-month T-Bill and the 10-year Treasury Note inverted (the yield on the longer dated 10-year note moved below that of the 3-month T-Bill). The inversion has prompted many to point out the historical relationship between yield curve inversions and economic recession, but we believe this is overblown.
The yield offered on US Government bonds is largely dependent upon expectations for economic growth and inflation, both of which have moved lower over the past 6 months. However, at this point in time the US economy appears to be slowing rather than stalling. Expectations for economic growth remain around 2%, which could still provide a stable environment for investors to generate modest returns. In a low inflationary world, modest returns should still be enough to keep investors on track for their long-term goals.
Much of our review of the first quarter has been focused on the Federal Reserve and monetary policy, which remains a key area of focus for markets. But as the calendar rolls over into spring, markets may shift their focus to Q1 earnings, which are expected to be quite a bit lower than in 2018. The extent to which earnings exceed or miss expectations could be a key driver of market performance in Q2.
Furthermore, while President Trump has signaled that he is generally pleased with the progress that has been made with respect to trade negotiations with China, little tangible evidence of an impending deal has emerged. Recent data from Europe has highlighted the impact that the slowdown in global trade has had on the world economy, and this has been a source of unease for global investors. In our view, an eventual deal with China will be important to the extension of this bull market, as it would help to alleviate the concerns permeating through markets regarding the growth rate of the global economy. And it is these concerns that are at the core of the market’s anxiety over the future of Fed policy.
VIDEO: Q1 2019 Market Commentary – Connor Darrell CFA, Head of Investments, shares Valley National Financial Advisors’ review of the first quarter in 2019. WATCH NOW
Message from Our CEO
Matthew Petrozelli, CEO, discusses the value proposition behind our tax services, and previews a socially conscious investment strategy available to our wealth management clients. WATCH NOW
Our tax team created three videos about tax preparation, offering instructions, CPA tips, and answers to frequently asked questions. Visit valleynationalgroup.com/tax to access them all and get more resources.
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What a difference three months can make. Global equity markets sold off considerably throughout the 4th quarter, with sentiment turning negative as investors pondered the consequences of further monetary policy normalization in the wake of lower expectations for economic growth and inflation. The S&P 500 briefly entered “bear market” territory (defined as a 20% decline from previous highs) on Christmas Eve before bouncing off of lows, but the selloff was large enough to push markets into negative territory (as measured by total return, including dividends) on the year for the first time since the 2008 financial crisis. However, while there are indeed some signs of a moderation of economic growth (slowing housing market and fading impact of recent tax reform), the probability of recession in the near-term remains low. History suggests that non-recessionary bear markets tend to be short-lived.
The Federal Reserve was a major area of focus for bond investors throughout 2018, and that continued into Q4. The Fed implemented its 4th rate hike of the year following its December meeting, but acknowledged that its previous estimate of 4 further hikes during 2019 may be too aggressive. The shift in posture from the Fed reflected a sense of restraint that was already being priced into bond markets and represented a significant change in expectations from just three months prior. In our experience, sentiment tends to shift much faster than economic data, and the data still suggests that the U.S. economy is healthy. However, the Fed will face a difficult balancing act as it continues its normalization process even as markets have begun to show signs of fragility.
The “risk-off” sentiment that dominated the 4th quarter made its way into the corporate bond market, as credit spreads (the difference in yield between corporate and government bonds) widened to their highest level since 2016. However, overall bond market performance was positive during the 4th quarter as the volatility in equity markets caused investors to seek the relative safety of fixed income. It should be noted that despite what many pundits have deemed an unhealthy environment for bond investors, the overall bond market finished the year flat. To us, this is evidence that fixed income remains an important component of a properly diversified portfolio, and that a “bad” year for bonds looks very different from a “bad” year for equities.
After nearly a decade of healthy returns, it is unsurprising that markets have paused to digest the changing economic environment in which we currently find ourselves. Markets managed to squeeze three-years’ worth of gains into just 12 months during 2017, and ultimately, it has been an incredibly impressive run for U.S. equities over the past 10 years. Despite the negative sentiment that has dominated markets over the past three months, it is not unreasonable to suggest that stocks can generate positive returns in 2019.
We continue to express that we believe the forward outlook for investment returns across asset classes looks very different than it did even five years ago, but that is more a product of starting point than anything else. The key areas of focus for markets moving into 2019 will continue to be trade, the Fed, and global economic growth (with a particular emphasis on China, which has showed signs of slowing). We continue to believe that the possibility of “surprises” remains skewed to the upside with respect to trade (potential deal being reached with China) and future Fed policy (slower pace of rate hikes) but believe that the Chinese economy will be important to watch moving forward. It used to be that when the U.S. sneezed, the world caught a cold. But eventually, China’s economy will be large enough that the same could be said for the world’s most populous nation.
VIDEO: Q4 Market Commentary – Connor Darrell CFA, Head of Investments, shares Valley National Financial Advisors’ review of the fourth quarter, and a first quarter 2019 outlook. WATCH NOW
Matthew Petrozelli, CEO, reflects on the state of the markets moving into 2019. WATCH NOW